Wednesday, October 31, 2018

Pizza Dinner Schedule (Nov. 7, 2018)

Hi Instrumental Music students and parents,

This is the schedule for next Wednesday night's pizza dinner. It will be in the East High Commons from 530pm to 930pm. I'm looking forward to seeing you all. If you have any concerns or questions, please feel free to contact either Mr. Pham or me. The schedule the groups are each to perform is listed below. The purpose of the event is to raise funds to record our annual East High CD project. Thanks for all of your help and support. 




Pham                   3rd hour Beginning Band                            540-600 pm
Pham                    1st hour Intermediate Band                        600-620 pm
Oxman                7th hour String Orchestra                            620-640 pm
Oxman                8th hour Instrumental Ensemble                 640-700 pm
Oxman                 3rd Hour Jazz Ensemble                            700-720 pm
Oxman                 4th Hour Jazz Ensemble                             720-740 pm
Pham                    6th hour Mariachi                                       740-800 pm
Oxman               6th hour  Jazz Combo                                   800-820 pm
Pham                    2nd hour Jazz Ensemble                            820-830 pm 

Friday, October 26, 2018

final notes for second theory test on Oct. 30


TRIADS AND SEVENTH CHORDS
  1. Triads (3-Note chord structures)
a.       Major Triad-contains the 1st, 3rd, and 5th steps of a Major Scale. For example a C Major Triad (CM) would have the following notes (C, E, G) since the C Major Scale is : C D E F G AB C.
b.       Minor Triad- contains the 1st, flatted 3rd, and 5th steps of a Major Scale. For example a C Minor Triad (Cm) would have the following notes (C, Eb, G).
c.       Diminished Triad - contains the 1st, flatted 3rd, and flatted 5th steps of a Major Scale. For example a C Diminished Triad (Co)would have the following notes (C, Eb, Gb).
  1. Seventh Chords (4-note chord structures)
a.       Major 7th chord- contains the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th  steps of a Major Scale. For example a C Major 7th (CM7) chord would have the following notes (C, E, G, B) since the C Major Scale is : C D E F G AB C.
b.       Minor 7th chord- contains the 1st, flatted 3rd, 5th, and flatted 7th  steps of a Major Scale. For example a C Minor 7th (Cm7) chord would have the following notes (C, Eb, G, Bb).
c.       Dominant 7th chord- contains the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and flatted 7th  steps of a Major Scale. For example a C dominant 7th (C7) chord would have the following notes (C, E, G, Bb.
d.       Half Diminished 7th chord (also called a “minor seven flat five chord”)- contains the 1st, flatted 3rd, flatted 5th, and flatted  7th  steps of a Major Scale. For example a C half diminished  7th (Cø7 or Cm7(5) ) chord would have the following notes (C, Eb, Gb, Bb).
e.       Diminished 7th chord - contains the 1st, flatted 3rd, flatted 5th, and double flatted  7th  steps of a Major Scale. For example a C diminished  7th (C dim. 7th ) chord would have the following notes (C, Eb, Gb, Bbb).

  1. Extensions- These are the 9th, 11th and 13ths that are added on to 7th chords.
  2. A  9th would be the equivalent of the 2nd degree of a scale. A C Major  9th (CM9) contains the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th of a major scale and would be constructed using the following notes (C, E, G, B, D) as per the major scale below:
C             D             E              F              G             A             B             C             D
1              2              3              4              5              6              7              8              9
               
The 11th would be the equivalent of the 4th , and the 13th would be the equivalent of the 6th.  Remember that when playing dominant or major chords that extend above a 9th (CM11, CM13, C11 or C13), we automatically raise the 11th scale degree by ½ step to avoid the clash between the 3rd and the 11th of the chord.
The CM11 chord would therefore have the following notes: C, E, G, B, D, F#. If we didn’t raise the F we would have the not so good sounding interval between the E (3rd of the chord) and the F (11th of the chord).

The 11th is not raised on a minor 11th or minor 13th chord as there is no clash that occurs here between the 3rd and the 11th. The notes in a C minor 13th chord would include C, Eb, G, Bb, D, F, and A.

Altered Notes on a Dominant 7 chord:
For the purposes of our study, we will deal with altered notes that only appear with relation to a dominant chord. The one exception to this is the chord that we have already talked about which is the minor 7 (b5) or half-diminished chord.
With respect to a C13 (C, E, G, Bb, D, F#, A) chord we have the several  possibilities for alterations. Remember that we automatically raise the 11th of any chord that has a regular or major third. In this case the major 3rd is the “E”. Therefore the “F” must be raised to an F# to avoid the horrible clash that would otherwise occur between the “E” and the “F”. The full list of alterations is as follows:
A (the 13th) could be lowered one half step to Ab making it a b13.
As stated above the F (the 11th) must be raised by one half step to F# making it a #11.
The D (the 9th) can be raised by one half step to D# making it a #9.
The D (the 9th) can be lowered by one half step to Db making it a b9.
The b13 and the #11 can also be written as altered 5ths. In other words the Ab could be written as G# (#5) and the F# could be written as Gb (b5).
Based on the above discussion, there are 4 basic alterations for a dominant  chord. They are:
  1. b13 or its enharmonic  alteration of a #5.
  2. #11 or its enharmonic  alteration of b5.
  3. #9
  4. b9
 1. Diminished Scale (starting with ½ step) is a scale that alternates by using a half-step followed by a whole step over and over.
C             Db          Eb           E              F#           G             A             Bb           C
                                                Or
Db          D             E              F              G             Ab          Bb           B             Db
                                                Or
D             Eb           F              Gb          Ab          A             B             C             D

The next octotonic scale starts on Eb and it uses the exact same pitch collection as the C octoto3nic scale.


2. Whole-Tone Scale consists entirely of whole steps. A whole step is equal to 2 half steps.
C             D             E              F#           G#          Bb           C
                                                Or
Db          Eb           F              G             A             B             Db

Diminished Whole-Tone Scale: This is a combination of the Diminished and Whole-Tone Scales. The bottom half is derived from the Diminished Scale and the top half from the Whole-Tone Scale.
An example of this would be: C, Db, Eb, E, F#, G#, Bb, C. .   Notice in the key of C , we have a b9(Db), a #9 (Eb),  a b5  or #11 (F#), and a #5 or b13 (G#) as altered pitches. This scale would be applied against a dominant 7 chord—in this case a C7 chord.


I.                     Minor Scales (3 forms):
a.       Natural Minor – This is derived from starting on the 6th step of a major scale and using the major scale pitch collection with no alterations, consequently  the name “natural”.
If you have an A Major scale: A, B, C#, D, E, F#, G#, A   you would derive the natural minor scale by starting on the 6th scale degree which in this case is F#. Your F# natural minor scale would then be  F#, G#, A,  B, C#, D, E, F#.
b.       Harmonic  Minor – This is the natural minor scale with the 7th step raised by one half step.  The F# harmonic minor scale would be : F#, G#, A,  B, C#, D, E#, F#. The seventh step (E) has been raised one half step to E#.
c.       Melodic Minor – This is the natural minor scale with the 6th and 7th steps raised while ascending and lowered back to their natural form while descending. The F# melodic minor scale is: (ascending) F#, G#, A,  B, C#, D#, E#, F#. When descending it would be: F#, E, D, C#, B, A, G#, F#.
II.                   Relative Minor
A minor and major scale are relative to each other  if they share the same key signature. Relative is not a type of key signature. It is only a condition that exists when two scales (one minor and one major) share the same key signature. A Major and F# minor are relative to each other because they share the same key signature of 3 sharps (F#, C#, and G#). 
Every Major Scale has a Minor Scale that is relative to it. Relative is only a condition that exists between two scales when they share the same key signature. If a major and minor scale have the same key signature, then by definition, they are relative to each other. Relative is NOT a type of minor scale.
The 6th step of the major scale is where the relative minor scale starts. If we consider the same pitch collection with no altered notes then we have the Natural Minor. An example of this is:
C Major = C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C. The 6th step (in red) is A. If we use the same pitch collection starting on A we have:  A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A. This is the A Natural Minor scale and it is relative to C Major because they both have the same key signature of no sharps or flats.


Tuesday, October 23, 2018

Notes for Second Theory Test as of 10-18-18


Notes for 2nd Theory Test as of 10-18-18
Test Date: October 30, 2018

NOTE: In order to make sense of Minor – Major scale relationships, I have included here on page 1 the review notes on key signatures from the last 6 weeks.
I.                     Order of Sharps when used in a key signature:
a.       F,C,G,D,A,E,B    is the order of sharps.
II.                   Order of Flats when used in a key signature (reverse of the order of sharps):
a.       B,E,A,D,G,C,F   is the order of sharps.
III.                 You will need to know all of your major keys. Remember that when dealing with major keys, if the key signature has no sharps or flats then you are in the key of C Major.
a.       Order of sharps and related keys (major scales):
Key or Scale:       G             D             A             E              B             F#           C#
Order of #s:        F              C             G             D             A             E              B
b.       Order of flats and related keys (major scales):
Key or Scale:       F              Bb           Eb           Ab          Db          Gb          Cb
Order of bs:        B             E              A             D             G             C             F
As you can see from the chart above, If one has 4 sharps in the key signature, the scale or major key is E Major. The sharps in the key signature would be F, C, G, and D.
If one has 3 flats in the key signature, the scale or major key is Eb Major. The flats in the key signature would be B, E, and A.







Relative Minor
Every Major Scale has a Minor Scale that is relative to it. Relative is only a condition that exists between two scales when they share the same key signature. If a major and minor scale have the same key signature, then by definition, they are relative to each other. Relative is NOT a type of minor scale.
The 6th step of the major scale is where the relative minor scale starts. If we consider the same pitch collection with no altered notes then we have the Natural Minor. An example of this is:
C Major = C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C. The 6th step (in red) is A. If we use the same pitch collection starting on A we have:  A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A. This is the A Natural Minor scale and it is relative to C Major because they both have the same key signature of no sharps or flats.
It follows that if we are trying to find the relative Major scale when given a Minor scale we would use the 3rd step of the Minor scale to find the relative Major scale as follows:
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A is the A Natural Minor. It is related to C Major as we would use the same pitch collection starting on the third scale degree which in this case is C (in red):
C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C.

Three forms of the Minor Scale
  1. Natural Minor- This is discussed above. This scale has the exact same pitch collection as its relative Major scale.
  2. Harmonic Minor-This is just like the Natural Minor except we raise the 7th degree of the Minor Scale. Using the Natural Minor scale of A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A, we would raise the 7th step (in red). Therefore the A Harmonic Minor scale would be: A, B, C, D, E, F, G#, A.
  3. Melodic Minor-This is like the Natural Minor, except we raise the 6th and 7th degrees while ascending. Descending the Melodic Minor is identical to the Natural Minor. So the A Melodic Minor would be:
A, B, C, D, E, F#, G#, A (ascending)  and A, G, F, E, D, C, B, A (descending).

  1. Below is a chart with the Major keys and the Relative minor keys. This means that a Major key and its relative minor key share the same key signature.
MAJOR KEY                                         minor key
C Major                                                A minor
F Major                                                D minor
Bb Major                                             G minor
Eb Major                                              C minor
Ab Major                                             F minor
Db Major                                             Bb minor
Gb Major                                             Eb minor
Cb Major                                             Ab minor
G Major                                               E minor
D Major                                                B minor
A Major                                                F#  minor
E Major                                                C# minor
B Major                                                G# minor
F# Major                                              D# minor
C# Major                                              A# minor
CHROMATIC, WHOLE-TONE, DIMINISHED (aka Octotonic) AND DIMINISHED-WHOLE TONE (aka Super Locrian Mode)  SCALES
Chromatic Scale: A chromatic scale is comprised of the following notes, all ½ step away from one another (enharmonic tones are in red. These are tones that sound the same as the note written in black but are spelled differently):
C (B#),   C# (Db),   D,   D# (Eb),   E (Fb),   F,   F# (Gb),   G,   G# (Ab),   A,   A# (Bb),   B (Cb),   C (B#). 

Whole-Tone Scale. This means that every pitch is a whole step away from the previous pitch.  A whole step is equivalent to two half steps. It has 6 tones before the first one repeats one octave higher.
An example of this would be :  C,  D,  E,  F#,  G#,  Bb ,  C. Notice in the key of C , we have a b5  or #11 (F#) and a #5 or b13 (G#) as altered pitches.
                The whole tone scale is applied against a dominant 7 chord. There for a C7 chord’s whole tone scale would be C,D, E, F#,G#,Bb,C.
Diminished Scale. This scale starts with a half step and alternates back and forth with a whole step. C to Db is a half step and Db to Eb is a whole step.
An example of this would be:   C,  Db,  Eb,  E,  F#,  G,  A, Bb,  C.   Notice in the key of C , we have a b9(Db), a #9 (Eb), and  a b5  or #11 (F#) as altered pitches. This scale would be applied against a dominant 7 chord—in this case a C7 chord.

               Diminished Whole-Tone Scale (not covered yet) : This is a combination of the Diminished and Whole-Tone Scales. The bottom half is derived from the Diminished Scale and the top half from the Whole-Tone Scale.
An example of this would be: C, Db, Eb, E, F#, G#, Bb, C. .   Notice in the key of C , we have a b9(Db), a #9 (Eb),  a b5  or #11 (F#), and a #5 or b13 (G#) as altered pitches. This scale would be applied against a dominant 7 chord—in this case a C7 chord.

TRIADS AND SEVENTH CHORDS
  1. Triads (3-Note chord structures)
a.       Major Triad-contains the 1st, 3rd, and 5th steps of a Major Scale. For example a C Major Triad (CM) would have the following notes (C, E, G) since the C Major Scale is : C D E F G AB C.
b.       Minor Triad- contains the 1st, flatted 3rd, and 5th steps of a Major Scale. For example a C Minor Triad (Cm) would have the following notes (C, Eb, G).
c.       Diminished Triad - contains the 1st, flatted 3rd, and flatted 5th steps of a Major Scale. For example a C Diminished Triad (Co)would have the following notes (C, Eb, Gb).
  1. Seventh Chords (4-note chord structures)
a.       Major 7th chord- contains the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th  steps of a Major Scale. For example a C Major 7th (CM7) chord would have the following notes (C, E, G, B) since the C Major Scale is : C D E F G AB C.
b.       Minor 7th chord- contains the 1st, flatted 3rd, 5th, and flatted 7th  steps of a Major Scale. For example a C Minor 7th (Cm7) chord would have the following notes (C, Eb, G, Bb).
c.       Dominant 7th chord- contains the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and flatted 7th  steps of a Major Scale. For example a C dominant 7th (C7) chord would have the following notes (C, E, G, Bb.
d.       Half Diminished 7th chord (also called a “minor seven flat five chord”)- contains the 1st, flatted 3rd, flatted 5th, and flatted  7th  steps of a Major Scale. For example a C half diminished  7th (Cø7 or Cm7(5) ) chord would have the following notes (C, Eb, Gb, Bb).
e.       Diminished 7th chord - contains the 1st, flatted 3rd, flatted 5th, and double flatted  7th  steps of a Major Scale. For example a C diminished  7th (C dim. 7th ) chord would have the following notes (C, Eb, Gb, Bbb).
  
Alterations and Extensions

  1. Extensions- These are the 9th, 11th and 13ths that are added on to 7th chords.
  2. A  9th would be the equivalent of the 2nd degree of a scale. A C Major  9th (CM9) contains the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th of a major scale and would be constructed using the following notes (C, E, G, B, D) as per the major scale below:
C             D             E              F              G             A             B             C             D
1              2              3              4              5              6              7              8              9
               
The 11th would be the equivalent of the 4th , and the 13th would be the equivalent of the 6th.  Remember that when playing dominant or major chords that extend above a 9th (CM11, CM13, C11 or C13), we automatically raise the 11th scale degree by ½ step to avoid the clash between the 3rd and the 11th of the chord.
The CM11 chord would therefore have the following notes: C, E, G, B, D, F#. If we didn’t raise the F we would have the not so good sounding interval between the E (3rd of the chord) and the F (11th of the chord).

The 11th is not raised on a minor 11th or minor 13th chord as there is no clash that occurs here between the 3rd and the 11th. The notes in a C minor 13th chord would include C, Eb, G, Bb, D, F, and A.









Altered extensions and Altered fifths:
For the purposes of our study, we will deal with altered notes that only appear with relation to a dominant chord. The one exception to this is the chord that we have already talked about which is the minor 7 (b5) or half-diminished chord.
With respect to a C13 (C, E, G, Bb, D, F#, A) chord we have the several  possibilities for alterations. Remember that we automatically raise the 11th of any chord that has a regular or major third. In this case the major 3rd is the “E”. Therefore the “F” must be raised to an F# to avoid the horrible clash that would otherwise occur between the “E” and the “F”. The full list of alterations is as follows:
A (the 13th) could be lowered one half step to Ab making it a b13.
As stated above the F (the 11th) must be raised by one half step to F# making it a #11.
The D (the 9th) can be raised by one half step to D# making it a #9.
The D (the 9th) can be lowered by one half step to Db making it a b9.
The b13 and the #11 can also be written as altered 5ths. In other words the Ab could be written as G# (#5) and the F# could be written as Gb (b5).

Based on the above discussion, there are 4 basic alterations for a dominant  chord. They are:
  1. b13 or its enharmonic  alteration of a #5.
  2. #11 or its enharmonic  alteration of b5.
  3. #9
  4. b9

Friday, October 19, 2018

Citywide Orchestra Auditions

Students,
Here is the information on String Orchestra auditions only:

We have our auditions at East High scheduled for the following days: 

October 29 (from 1-2pm during 7th hour)

November 2 (only from 1-130pm but during 7th hour)

November 5 (from 1-2pm during 7th hour)

Each audition is about 7 minutes in length. I would suggest taking the earlier dates first as I'm not sure we will all be able to audition if the first days aren't used. I passed out the audition music but if anyone still needs it, please talk to me at school and I will make sure you receive it. 


If any students are interested in Citywide Band, please let me know. Unfortunately they scheduled it during our Spring Musical week. Most of you will probably want to be involved in the musical over the citywide band, I am assuming. I did talk to them about this and it is unfortunate that the scheduling conflicted with our musical. I'm so disappointed that this happened. 

Thanks to all of you for such a great year so far. 

Keith Oxman